The first IAGA-IASPEI Joint Scientific Assembly and 31st IASPEI General Assembly was held at the International Conference Center (ICC), Hanoi, Vietnam, from 20-30 August 2001.
More than 1000 scientists from 64 countries registered for the assembly. The scientific program consisted of 58 scheduled symposia, 7 of which were joint with IAGA. Over 1700 abstracts were submitted, more than 500 of those being sent to IASPEI or IASPEI-led symposia.
21 August 2001
The President opened the meeting and welcomed participants.
The President introduced the Secretary-General.
The Secretary-General read aloud the following list of colleagues who have died since the last IASPEI General Assembly in 1999 and asked those present to take a few moments of silence in their memory.
The Secretary-General noted several housekeeping items and announced that the major items of business at this Assembly were:
The President announced the appointment of Peter Suhadolc as Associate Secretary-General of IASPEI.
The President announced the composition of the Resolutions Committee and the guidelines for submission of resolutions:
The deadline for submission of draft resolutions was set at 1700, Monday, August 27.
The President gave his report.
The President closed the meeting.
(Co-Sponsored by SEDI)
Convenors: Jean-Pierre Valet (France), Kenneth A. Hoffman (USA)
Report not available.
(Co-Sponsored by SEDI and Linked to IASPEI Symposium S4,
Convenors: David Loper (USA), J-P. Poirier (France), B. Romanowicz (USA), X. Song (USA)
This joint IASPEI/IAGA symposium held on Tuesday, August 21, 2001, consisted of three invited presentations and ten contributed presentations (two additional abstracts were submitted, but not presented). organized into two half- day sessions.
The morning session began with a review of seismic structures above the core-mantle boundary by Thorne Lay (UC Santa Cruz). The most interesting new development is the observation and confirmation of localized regions at the base of the mantle in which P&S velocities are significantly lower than PREM values. The nature and cause of these structures are as yet unknown. H. Tkalcic next presented results of PKP-P and PCP-P differential travel time analysis showing that coherent regions of positive and negative differences, having lateral scales ~10^3^km, occur in the D" layer. J-P Poirier described a stochastic simulation of small-scale melting-freezing processes at the core-mantle boundary. This simulation shows that roughness exists on a scale of 1/2-1m, and shallow, large-scale undulations may occur. H. Udata described efforts to detect the electric field associated with a toroidal magnetic field in the core using submarine cables in the Pacific Ocean. In order to have a strong signal, the outer core must be oscillating torsionally and the lower mantle must have a low conductance. B.Chao reported on a study of core-mantle dynamic coupling, finding that kinematic models (as opposed to dynamic models) tend to overestimate topographic torques and underestimate electromagnetic torque; the latter may contribute significantly to the observed decadal changes in the length of day. W. Kuang used a dynamo model to investigate the effect of lateral variations in heat flux from core to mantle on core flow and field. The mean kinetic and magnetic energies are not affected, but secular variation of the field becomes localized.
The afternoon session opened with a review by B. Romanowicz of seismological evidence for inner-core anisotropy. She showed that much of the signal attributed to inner-core anisotropy may be explained by lateral structure in the D" layer. Next, P. Zhang examined a possible dynamic instability of outer core fluid by super-rotation of the inner-core. He found that rotation stabilizes potential instabilities. A. Dziewonski presented next, a simple model of inner-core anisotropy that explains the observed seismic signal. The third review lecture, by J-L. Kemouel, focused on dissipative core-mantle coupling mechanism, principally electromagnetic and viscous. Tidal resonances likely were important episodically during earth history. P. Cardin described ongoing laboratory investigations of Poincare (precessional) flow in a rotating sphere, and a companion analytic model, which shows that the fluid response to precession is nonlinear and multi-valued. The last two presentations of the symposium, by S.Tagare, described theoretical analyses of the compositional convective instability of rotating and hydromagnetic fluids
(Linked to IASPEI Symposium S4
Convenor: Pascal Tarits (France)
(Co-Sponsored by SEDI)
Convenors: Conall MacNiocaill (UK), John A. Tarduno (USA)
This joint IAGA/IASPEI symposium was held in Hanoi on Monday August 20th. Nine presentations were made, which dealt with both improvements to the methodology of generating plate reconstructions, and with the presentation of new data which have a bearing on reconstructions. Some brief highlights are presented here.
Improvements to the methodology of plate reconstructions included the opening presentation by Jerome Dyment and colleagues on the structure of magnetic anomalies across the Mid-Atlantic ridge. They demonstrated that significant variations are present in peak to peak amplitudes of the anomalies, particularly at the ends of ridge segments, indicating that some process, most likely serpentenization, is blurring the magnetic signal. Reconstructions of slow-spreading plates, hence, are probably best based on data from segment centers, rather than segment ends. Along similar lines, Sang-Mook Lee and colleagues presented the results of a magnetic survey from the South Philippine Sea where field fluctuations due to ionospheric activity had proved to be a significant source of noise in their data set. They showed that significant improvements in the signal to noise ratio could be made by using geomagnetic data from a land-based station to correct for ionospheric effects, effectively reducing cross-over errors in the data from over 60nT to less than 20nT.
Dave Clark and colleagues and Masako Miki and colleagues presented new data that have a bearing on late-Paleozoic plate reconstructions. The data of Masako and colleagues indicated that terranes in eastern Australia had effectively been sutured to the Australian craton from at least the middle Devonian, whereas the presentation of Clark and colleagues point to problems in both the classic Pangea A and B fits. Data from Permian volcanics and intrusives in New South Wales require a much tighter Pangea fit which would require implausible amounts of continental attenuation during break-up. This indicates that may either have been a significant non-dipole contribution to the Earth's magnetic field at the time, or that adjustments may need to be made to Gondwana reconstructions. Finally Manuel Calvo and colleagues presented new paleomagnetic data from Cretaceous rocks in the Basque arc on the Northern edge of the Iberian peninsula, which agree very well with data from stable Europe. This indicates that the Basque arc is likely part of stable Europe and the boundary between Iberia and Europe lies to the south.
(Co-Sponsored by ILP and Linked to IASPEI Symposium S4
Convenors: Alan G. Jones (Canada), Jaroslava Plomerova (Czech Republic)
Results of high-resolution 3D tomographic studies of the upper mantle and of research of large-scale anisotropy achieved by applying different seismological and EM methods, on global and regional scales, were presented in 6 oral and 6 posters contributions during a full day symposium. Seismic anisotropy provides models of large-scale fabric within individual domains of the continental mantle lithosphere through general 3D orientation of symmetries. Sutures culling the entire lithosphere separate the anisotropic domains. Models of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, which is of primary importance within the upper mantle, based on variations of seismic velocities, electric conductivity, temperature and seismic anisotropy were built. Namely the anisotropic inferences on the upper mantle structure, both seismologic and EM, provide important diagnostic evidence for mapping past and present deformation of entire crust upper mantle system and its development.
(Co-Sponsored by ILP)
Convenors: Manik Talwani (USA), S. Maschenkov (Russia)
The margins lithosphere and their processes controlling their growth, evolution, economic and hazard potential, pose one of the foremost themes in Earth sciences. In the past few decades, geophysical imaging has substantially improved our understanding of the architecture of both oceanic and continental crust and parts of the underlying mantle. Recently, interest has been turning to the major processes that effect the land-ocean transition and require sophisticated imaging techniques and advanced methodology for their identification. Towards this end the papers of JL2 session contributed more to the identification of structures at continental margins (India, Australia, South America and South Asia) than to processes that are acting at active and passive margins. Potential field data from satellite missions, land based and ship borne were analyzed and interpreted together with MT, seismic tomography and DSS data.
M. Rajaram showed that structure, evolution and sedimentation history of the sedimentary basins of the Eastern Continental Margin of India can be inferred from different geophysical and geological evidences to understand its tectonic evolution and the break up history of the former Gondwana super continent. An animated scene that demonstrated the evolution of the eastern Indian continental margin accompanied the power point presentation.
F. Lilley showed advantages of combined on and offshore magneto telluric investigations along several ocean-continent electromagnetic profiles that have been conducted around the coasts of Australia over the last twenty years. The OCELOT experiment of year 2000 is the most recent one and is conducted across the continental shelf and Exmouth Plateau of northwest Australia. This area is an important source of hydrocarbons, and has been well prospected seismically. Data analysis is under way, and initial results show the presence of the Dampier sub-basin, with sediments to depths of 10 km, lying on the coastal side of the Carnarvon Basin.
H-J. Goetze, as reporter of a newly established SALT initiative, showed first results of seismic and gravity campaigns that are part of a 3D lithosphere transect that will cross South America between latitudes 40 to 45 degrees south. This is probably one of the very few places in world where an active continental margin can be combined with a passive margin on a logistically feasible basis. The active (Chilean) margin is suggested to be an intermediate type accretionary margin with upper plate magmatism and deformation and extremely high potential for strong seismicity. The Argentinian back arc area is dominated by a number of major hydrocarbon-bearing continental basins of large economic importance and substantial industry interest.
R. Sun presented in her paper the analysis of 2010 Rayleigh wave records in the area of the Philippine Sea. The inversion resulted in 3-D structures of shear wave velocity distributions. Velocity domains coincide with gross tectonic structures (e.g. Philippine Sea Plate, Okinawa Trough, etc.) Palau Kyushu Ridge divides the Philippine Sea into a western and eastern part; asthenosphere in the western area is more developed than in the east. The Okinawa Trough is characterized by a thick asthenosphere with low velocity.
N. N. Trung processed and interpreted satellite gravity in the offshore area of the South China Basin. The area was formed during late Oligocene- early Miocene in a region of complex interaction among the Pacific, Australian-Indo and Eurasian plates. The processed gravity field and its horizontal gradients show that there are important differences among the spreading segments. There are evidences for the lateral variations of crustal density: accreted dense material, uplifted and subducted crustal basement.
(Co-Sponsored by ILP and Linked to IASPEI Symposium S4
Convenors: Walter D. Mooney (USA), H-J. Goetze (Germany), A. Hirn (France), R. van der Voo (USA), C-Y. Wang (China)
Symposium joined with IASPEI symposium S4.
Convenors: Vjacheslav Spichak (Russia), Jacques Zlotnicki, (France)
This one and a half-day symposium effectively gathered 18 oral and 14 poster presentations, respectively. Up to about 60 researchers were present during the morning oral presentations.
Mainly two domains were discussed during the session; one was related to volcanic and earthquake events and the other to atmospheric and ionospheric phenomena. The morning session was essentially dealing with electric, magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) signals associated with volcanic activity and in a lesser part with earthquakes. In volcanoes, results become consistent, some groups are now using a global approach of EM fields. In the field combined techniques are implemented in order to evaluate the occurrence and the time changes of each signal and to discriminate the prevailing physical mechanism. In seismically active faults new insights are still less developed. Generally only one or two EM techniques are settled on in the field. But, opposite to presentations made a few years ago, results are now taking into account external phenomena, the morphology of which is sometimes similar to EM signals possibly appearing before, during or after an earthquake. The afternoon session was devoted to atmospheric and ionospheric phenomena. Some examples of atmospheric ion density changes prior to earthquakes were vigorously discussed. This probably new insights will be obtained when satellite projects in association with ground based measurements will be effective.
The IUGG Executive Committee had formally approved the constitution birth of an Inter-Association (IAGA-IASPEI-IAVCEI) Working Group on "Electromagnetic Studies of Earthquakes and Volcanoes". The first meeting was held on Thursday, 23 and about 20 persons attended it. The content was discussed and a guideline was proposed for the near future. A symposium on Seismo-, Volcano- and Tectono-electromagnetic effects at IUGG 2003, Sapporo, already proposed during Birmingham 1999 meeting, was formerly approved. A web site will be developed in the next months; it will help to gather the community interested in this research domain.
(Co-Sponsored by SEDI)
Convenors: C. Klootwijk (Australia), Cogne (France), T.Q. Lee (Taiwan)
This symposium held on Tuesday August 21, 2001, was divided into two sessions: oral (morning) and poster (afternoon). I led both sessions.
About 80 participants from Vietnam, Japan, China, India, Russia, Australia, Spain, England, France, Canada, USA, and Argentina attended the morning session. The first four talks described the geophysical, tectonic, and geologic signature of subduction and collision zones in both North and South America. These recent studies are improving our understanding of both ancient and modern subduction and compressional plate boundary settings. Such understanding is vital for planning new research to address fundamental issues in paleomagnetism and seismology applied to tectonics.
After the break, five talks covering new paleomagnetic results from Russia, China and Vietnam were presented. These new studies have implication for reconstructing the tectonic evolution and paleogeographic configuration of Asian plates and gained insight into block rotations. Following an invited talk by Professor Cung Thuong Chi of Vietnam, Prof. Dr. Nguyen Thi Kim Thoa, who was the President of LOC for the meeting, presented a keynote talk.
In addition to these talks, open discussion sessions were also conducted. Key problems in working on SE Asia were reviewed. The discussions were lively and illuminating with the radiant presence of Professors Mike Fuller, Dave Clark, Nguyen Thi Kim Thoa, Dave Symons, and Hidefumi Tanaka, to name a few.
The poster session in the afternoon was also successful. Although a few posters did not make their way to the meeting, the remaining posters from our session occupied nearly half the space in the poster hall. These posters not only exchanged state-of-the-art scientific and technological knowledge on paleomagnetism and geochemistry of present and ancient subduction zones, but also provided an opportunity to exchange ideas with colleagues and keep abreast of developments in other fields.
To sum up, I think the internationally diverse attendance and interdisciplinary nature of my sessions have contributed significantly to the success of the meeting. I thank you for the excellent job in leading the jointed IASPEI/IAGA symposia that offered a rigorous meeting program and strengthened the scientific and technological exchange between Vietnamese and international institutions that specialize in paleomagnetism for continued collaboration and mutual benefit. I look forward to the upcoming General Assemblies in Japan 2003 with the new vitality and enhanced identity that this IAGA/IASPEI meeting will bring.
(Co-Sponsored by SEDI and Linked to IASPEI Workshop S6W
Convenors: S. McLean (USA), T. Ahern (USA), D. Herzog (USA), T. Iyemori (Japan)
This session provided presentations on the rapidly growing technologies involved in geophysical research data management. Papers centered on three major themes, including World Wide Web (WWW) database access systems and methodologies; development of Windows-based data processing applications; and recovery of pre-digital analog data records.
As databases grow in size and complexity, new capabilities are needed to access the data and metadata rapidly and efficiently. Open source software for archiving and retrieving data from upper atmospheric research projects via Web-based interactive software enables users to adapt this application to their particular needs. Other developments described distributed object technologies that address the problems of growing database sizes through networked data distribution systems, and commercial software has been developed to allow optimal transfer of large volumes of data between an Internet or Intranet client and data server.
New Windows-based software for processing and analyzing magnetic observatory data was demonstrated. This software provides a Graphical User Interface (GUI) application for displaying, cleaning, and quality control of geomagnetic data giving immediate results of processing steps and reducing errors and processing times. This software will be made available to institutions in other countries to assist in the general improvement in data management techniques and procedures.
Papers were given showing the importance of recovering analog magnetograms from undocumented locations throughout the world. Some of the most significant geomagnetic events ever recorded are only available from these old photographic records, which often cannot be located and are deteriorating over time. Several suggestions were presented to recover these data resources and digitize them into electronic files.
Program Group: Diana (Chile), P. Bernard (France), H.K. Gupta (India), D. Jackson (USA), A. Sidorin (Russia), R. Stefansson (Iceland), M. Wyss (USA)
In the session on earthquake predictability (S1b), eight of the eleven scheduled presentations were given, together with one presentation transferred from another session:
In the session on earthquake Nucleation and Prediction (S1e), twelve oral presentations were originally scheduled for this session. However six speakers did not attend the meeting. The absentees were G. Ferrari (Italy), SH. E. Usupaev (Kyrgyz Republic), O. Novik (Russia), P. Mandal (India), A.Ya. Sidorin (Russia), and K.N. Abdullabekov (Uzbekistan). Thus only six of the scheduled papers were presented. In the absence of A.Ya. Sidorin, the two afternoon sessions were chaired by V.M. Hamza (Brazil).
There were 26 attendees representing twenty-one different research institutions. The first speaker (Y. Shi, China) presented a critical evaluation of Chinese annual earthquake predictions for the period 1990 to 2000, pointing out that there has been a steady increase in the efficiency of the overall prediction efforts during the last five years. The second speaker (A. Zavyalov, Russia) presented maps of conditional probability distribution of earthquakes based on the M8 algorithm for middle-term earthquake prediction for selected areas in Caucasus, Kamchatka, Kopet-Dag, Kirgistan, California, China and Greece.
The first speaker of the second part of the session (V.M.Hamza, Brazil) presented numerical models of deformation induced fluid flows and associated thermal perturbations in earthquake source regions. The model results were compared with results of continuous records of temperatures in localities situated in Japan, China, Georgia, Turkmenistan and Greece. The second speaker (V. Kovalevsky, Russia) presented results of experiments with powerful (100 ton force) seismic vibrators to investigate changes in the deformation state of seismic zones, for distances of up to 430 km. The last two speakers of the session (S. Tanaka, Japan and V. Tyupkin, Russia) discussed the influence of stress changes induced by tidal variations and its role in triggering earthquakes in areas where stress accumulation has reached a critical state.
The highlight of the session was the presentation by S. Tanaka (Japan), demonstrating a particularly remarkable correlation between tidal stresses and reverse fault-type earthquakes at shallow depths.
All presentations were followed by discussions, chiefly related to the problems of earthquake nucleation in the light of the results of new experimental theoretical investigations and its implications for prediction.
Program Group: Domenico Giardini (Switzerland), R. Punongbayan (Philippines), P. Tapponnier (France), P. Zhang (China)
The Seismotectonics symposium was held over two days on August 21 and 22. Presentations were divided into 3 oral sessions: S2a, Vietnam and Eastern Asia, S2b, Central-Western Eurasia, S3c, Western Pacific and the rest of the world. In addition, a poster session was held on August 23. In total, 39 oral presentations and 41 posters were scheduled.
S2 was successful in presenting an overview of modern, multi-disciplinary seismotectonics and neotectonic investigations in different areas of the world, with a focus on Eastern Asia, Central Asia and the Western Pacific margin.
In addition to the high quality of the majority of the presented papers, the following considerations can be made:
Attendance to the presentations was 60-140 people, with some very lively discussions. The poster session was also very well attended. A significant number of oral presentations were withdrawn (10) and the program needed to be readjusted to cover for holes, leading to more extended presentations and discussions on some of the presented topics. Sadly, 3 out of 5 presentations scheduled by Vietnamese scientists were withdrawn, limiting the possibility for the IASPEI community to be exposed to local science and seismotectonics.
It is recommended that in the future the organization of the session on seismotectonics be coordinated directly by the Commission on Tectonophysics.
(Co-Sponsored by ILP)
Program Group: Z. L. Wu (China), G. F. Panza (Italy), K. Shedlock (USA)
Before the Assembly 71 abstracts were received, with 33 assigned as oral presentations and 38 as posters. During the meetings on August 23 and 24, there were 29 talks and 21 posters presented. Randomly sampling statistics shows that there were on average 60 persons as audience of each oral presentation, and there were about 120 persons going to the poster session. N. T. Nguyen, M. Radulian, F. Romanelli, K. Shedlock, and Z. L. Wu presided over the meetings as convenors.
Study on strong ground motion, earthquake hazard and risk plays an important role in the development of seismology and acts as an 'interface' between seismological research and sustainable development of society. During the past four years several destructive earthquakes occurred (including the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, the 2000 Tottori-ken Seibu earthquake, and the 2001 Gujrat earthquake, among others) with significant academic and societal impact. The observation of strong ground motion and aftershock sequences, as well as the investigation of destruction by these earthquakes, provide informative, valuable, and even unprecedented data, experiences and lessons to the study of seismology, as reported in the presentations during the meetings. Some earthquakes, although smaller in magnitudes, such as the 1998 Bovec-Krn mountain, Slovenia, Ms 5.7 earthquake and the 1999 Agusan Del Sur, Mindanao, Philippines, Mw 5.6 earthquake, also provides useful information due to the detailed analysis of seismic and tectonic data. Microzonation and/or strong motion study for different cities, such as Alexanderia, Egypt; Beijing, China; Bucharest, Romania; Kfar-Saba, Israel; and Newcastle, Australia; and different countries/regions such as Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, Europe, Germany, Greece, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, Philippines, Romania, Syria, and the United States, were reported. Further comparison among different places and different methodologies will be interesting.
The probabilistic approach is still active and effective in micro-zonation studies. The deterministic approach, based on the recent development in the study of seismic source and seismic wave propagation, attracted more and more attention among seismologists. Interesting results for the understanding of the observed phenomenology and empirical knowledge in engineering seismology such as attenuation, focusing/defocusing, H/V spectral ratio, and site-dependent amplifications were obtained. Considering the recent development of computational seismology, this field may be regarded to great extent as a prospective direction, which may fill in the gap of instrumental observations and overcome the limitations of many of the traditional approaches. Meanwhile, the testing of such kind of numerical predictions using real observational data, as reported by some of the speakers, plays the essential role of the 'calibration' against the theoretical models, which will be useful for the improvement of such models. In addition, seismological input for both probabilistic and deterministic approaches, such as earthquake source parameters, paleoseismic and seismotectonic information, and 3-D medium structures including site dependent shallow structures, also need to be emphasized, as reflected by some of the presentations.
Some new approaches, such as the estimation of 'joint hazards' at more than one site which may be useful in considering large scale modern engineering structures, and near real-time prediction of PGA and PGV using strong motion network recordings, were reported during the meeting. In the phenomenology of earthquake hazard and risk, the existing theories and models often show their limitations in many aspects. Accordingly in the discussion, it was pointed out that the importance of qualitative and 'inexact' knowledge of earthquake hazard and risk, especially in the comprehensive analysis of information coming from different sources, and in dealing with macro-seismic phenomenology and historical documentation, should not be underestimated and neglected. Most of the presentations focused on the study of strong motion and seismic zonation. However, the range of discussion was so wide as to include not only the earthquake itself but also earthquake induced landslides, tsunami, dynamic analysis of porous media, R/S analysis for a fractional Brownian motion (fBm) time series as applied to earthquake sequences, on-site noise measurements, empirical long term earthquake prediction, and seismic safety of cultural heritage.
In response to the message of the Secretary General, the potential of the publication of a special volume in Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. or Tectonophysics was discussed before and during the meetings. Dr. K. Shedlock, Prof. G.F. Panza, and Prof. Y-T. Chen accepted the invitation as guest editors of the proposed special volume. There were 22 participants indicating that they are willing to contribute a paper to the special volume 'Strong Ground Motion, Earthquake Hazard and Risk in the Alpine-Himalayas and Pacific Region'. The program group will send the application for publication of the special volume to the IASPEI Executive Committee and the Elsevier Science Publishing Company. The publication will be in cooperation with the S3W session whose summary has been composed separately by Prof. Y. T. Chen.
(Co-Sponsored by ILP)
Convenors: Y. T. Chen (China), G. F. Panza (Italy), K. Irikura (Japan)
Nine papers were presented in the morning session S3Wa, and only one paper was presented in the afternoon session. About 35-40 participants presented to the morning session, and about 20 to the afternoon session. There were nine presentations included in the original schedule. A paper submitted by Dr. T. M. Al- Hussaini et al (paper ID ) was transferred from SW Session and was arranged after the last presentation by Professor L.L.Xie. There were four presentations for the afternoon session on the schedule. Due to the absence of Dr. B.T.Huygen of Japan, BS.Nurtaer of Uzbekistan and Dr. Prochazkova of Czech, finally only one paper of Professor K. Irikura was presented in S3Wb.
The session S3W covered various fields that related to the studies of the effects of earthquakes on megacities. The papers presented in this session included field studies of large earthquakes, such as the January 13, 2001, M=7.6 El Salvador earthquake (C. Lindholm and H.Bungum) and the August 17, 1999, Izmit, Turkey, earthquake (O.Polat, et al.). Also included were studies of earthquake source processes, such as the June 4, 2000, Southern Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake of Ms=8^o^ (Y.H.Zhou, L.S.Xu and Y.T.Chen). Three papers focused on the realistic modeling of ground motion, especially on the simulation of the variation of site amplifications due to different design earthquakes (P. Trantafyllidis, P. Suhadolc, et al.), on the modeling of the differential input induced by seismic waves (F. Romanelli et al.), and on the recipe of strong motion prediction of the 1995 Kobe, 1999 Kocaeli and 1999 Chi-chi earthquakes. The participants expressed great interests to the unified approach for probabilistic analysis of seismic hazard studies presented by Professor B.A.Bolt and to the appeal by Professor L.L.Xie for the application of remote Sensing technology to earthquake hazard reduction. The two papers related to the earthquake hazard assessment program in Bangladesh (Al-Hussaini et al.) and earthquake-induced landslide hazard zonation in Himalayan region of India (D. Shanker and B.Singh) released recent progress in earthquake and earthquake-induced hazard reduction and have extracted extensive attention.
While the session S3W has been very successful, two issues remained to be improved in the future meeting. The first issue is that the convenor should be provided with the necessary information about the absence of the participants before the session, so as they can make appropriate adjustments to the time schedule. The second issue is that the convenors as well as the speakers should jointly keep the presentation within the time limit as scheduled, so as the time located for discussion can be guaranteed.
(Co-Sponsored by SEDI and Linked to Joint Symposium JS1 (G1.04)
Program Group: Barbara Romanowicz (USA), J. Braun (Australia), U. Christensen (Germany), R. D. van der Hilst (USA), L. Kellogg (USA), W. Zhao (China)
This session on global geodynamics/transition zone (S4a) was well attended and covered a variety of topics on global tomography, global convection modeling, and structure of the transition zone, as well as mineral physics constraints on lower mantle composition. One focus was the issue of the thickness of the transition zone as measured by various techniques, which have in the recent past led to controversies, since some authors have found significant variations between continents and oceans and some not. It seems that there is now some consensus that oceans and continents are different. There were several changes in the program. Louise Kellogg did not come and Ian Jackson, who discussed chemical composition based on experimental results - an extension of his poster, replaced her presentation. F. Marton was transferred to a poster (the author's preference) and replaced by a presentation on mechanisms for melt extraction from plumes by H. Schmeling, who also presented a poster on this subject. The problem with this session and the following one (S4b, PM) was that there was no allocated time slot for viewing posters. I made several announcements during the session, and also during the core session the previous day. And there was indeed some time before the session started and after the session ended, during the relatively long lunch break.
This session on global structure/anisotropy (S4b) practically filled up the room, and all the speakers showed up as scheduled. There was a little incident in the afternoon, as there were probably too many talks scheduled after the break (5) and the session abutted with the IASPEI open meeting held in the same room at 6pm. The session chair was therefore nervous and was a bit sharp at cutting speakers off (especially, Dr Babuska, to whom I apologized later). A significant portion of the session was dedicated to the issue of anisotropy, and how information is obtained from seismology in various parts of the world, with discussion on resolution issues. In addition, there was one presentation on global mantle Q tomography, and one by J. Bass on mineral physics constraints, in particular on velocity jumps at mantle discontinuities which are at odds with seismological results, resulting in a lively discussion.
Sessions 4a and 4b were, in my opinion very successful. Few absentees, generally clear and high level presentations. In contrast, the next day, Thursday August 23rd, S4c and S4d (plumes, regional structure) was much less well attended, especially the afternoon session. Starting with about 20-30 people in the morning, by the end of the day only 5 people were left in the room. Presentations were uneven in quality, with a few really terrible ones by colleagues from the former Soviet Union in particular. There were also a couple of cancelled talks - one by Chris Kincaid, who fractured his ankle before the conference and another one by G. Gregori, which disrupted the morning session and probably caused a drop in attendance. However, the talks on mantle plumes were of high quality. In the afternoon, one of the reasons for the poor attendance was the concurrent session on earthquake location which apparently drew a large crowd - even though some of the afternoon speakers had interesting and well delivered presentations.
20-30 persons attended the session on regional geophysics (S4e). Dr. Jian Zhang was not able to attend and Dr. Y. Shi presented his contribution. The 7 oral presentations provide an interesting spectrum of interdisciplinary interpretations by automated techniques (genetic algorithms and FE modeling for stress modeling), forward modeling of potential field data (geoid and gravity) to calculate flexural rigidity (coherency and deconvolution techniques) of the Earth's lithosphere and the gravitational potential of high mountainous orogens. Also, examples were shown from investigations of the lithospheric structures by giant vibrators. Impressive examples for interdisciplinary interpretations came from the Tibet Plateau, the Andes and Alps, the Indian and Siberian shield area which always base on a broad set of geophysical data and tectonical observations. My overall impression is that session speakers and audience contributed to a stimulating session with lively discussions.
A diverse collection of 12 (of the scheduled 14) posters was presented was present in the poster session (S4a). Two of these were also presented in the paralleled oral session. Posters were presented to an enthusiastic audience of at least 40 scientists, and eight countries were presented.
One of the major themes was seismic tomography. Improvements in tomographic methodology were described by Yaskizawa and Kennett, and by Karason and Van der Hilst. New P-wave models for Europe, Central Asia and the Asia-Pacific region were presented by Geyko et al. Sebai et al used fundamental mode Rayleigh and core waves to image 3-D anisotropic structure beneath Africa.
Receiver-function techniques were used by Saita et al to determine depths to the "410" and "660 km" discontinuities beneath Indonesia and the South Pacific and by Levin et al to characterize the seismic-wave speed anisotropy in the wedge above the slab subducting beneath Kamchatka.
Tripathi outlined a new theoretical treatment of elastic wave scattering within a randomly heterogeneous medium. Ugalde et al measured coda Q^-1^ in the region effected by the Armenia (Colombia) earthquake of 1999, finding no systematic difference before and after the main shock.
Schmelling described a new 3-parameter model for melt extraction from the mantle, leading to predictions of episodicity of melt extraction and heterogeneity of melt distribution. Marquart discussed the interaction between a plume and a migrating spreading ridge with particular application to Iceland. Nguyen described the interaction between the astherosphere and mantle lithosphere expressed in the compositions of basaltic lavas from the Pleiku plateau in Vietnam. Marton discussed the influence of the initial thermal structure of the subducting slab and of latent heat effects on mineralogy, buoyancy, and subduction velocity.
Jackson reviewed progress in inferring the chemical composition and temperature of the lower mantle from seismological models.
(Co-Sponsored by SEDI)
Convenors: Gabi Laske (USA), I. Jackson (Australia)
Symposium joined with IASPEI symposium S4.
Program Group: Takehiko Yagi (Japan), D. Dingwell (Germany), I. Jackson (Australia), S. Karato (USA), E. Ohtani (Japan)
In this symposium 9 of the scheduled 12 speakers, representing 6 countries (Australia, China, Germany, Iran, Japan and the USA) presented papers. The audience fluctuated in size ~10 and ~ 20 during the day.
The morning session was devoted to a diverse and interesting set of papers focussed in one way or another on rheology. Zhan et al described the experimental deformation of a gabbro from a fault zone in China while Sakata reported crustal viscosities derived from 15-20 year records from borende strainmeters in Japan. Mekrabian described finite-element modeling of elastic deformation of a sock cylinder in extension. He and Ma explored the mechanical behavior of faults with a two-block model supported by experimental studies. Frank et al showed how the influence of water on mantle rheology affects the global water cycle and hence the fate of the Earth's hydrosphere.
In the afternoon session, Ohtani elaborated on the issue of water transport into the deep mantle, describing the results of experiments on the stability, at high pressures and the moderate temperatures expected in descending slabs, of a series of dense hydrous silicate phases. Yagi described an attempt to construct an estimate of transition-zone temperature independent of phase boundary constraints through comparison of temperature-dependent densities for the majorite-ringwoodite assemblage determined by in situ X-ray diffraction with those from the PREM model at the same pressure. Spetzler et al outlined recent applications and future prospects for ray-high-frequency (GHz) ultrasonic interferometry. Jackson et al presented a comparison of shear moduli determined at ultrasonic (MHz) and seismic frequencies (< 1 Hz) on a fine-grained specimen of polycrystalline olivine - documenting the dispersion associated with high-temperature viscoelastic relaxation.
Program Group: Brian L. N. Kennett (Australia), P. Bormann (Germany), J. Havskov (Norway), J. Park (USA), R-S. Wu (USA)
The papers submitted to S6 were organized into a number of sessions with related topics:
A very successful poster session was held on Tuesday August 28.
Although a good coherent program was assembled from the submitted abstracts, the proportion of no-shows was rather large and both the Monday and Tuesday afternoon session were rather truncated. Anisotropy effectively vanished - some replacement talks were found from the posters in other areas. The poster session itself was animated and the clear period of the second half of the morning assigned just to the posters worked well. Attendance on Monday and Tuesday varied from 20-40.
The Wednesday session on Networks and Location followed the Association Lecture. The first group of talks was linked to this lecture via the concept of calibration of regional phases, and then topics extended to other aspects of event location and the operations of networks. Only 2 papers were not presented, in the afternoon, and expanding a talk on the SIL network in Iceland filled the gap. This was quite a successful day although there was a little less discussion than expected. In the morning, numbers fluctuated between 30 and 50. In the afternoon, we had about 25 participants.
S6 covers a wide range of topics and there may be some merit in future in limiting the scope for the future so that, e.g., only development of tomographic methods are included, with applications to appear in the structure of the Earth Session.
Convenors: Yuri Tyupkin (Russia), V. Gitis (Russia), A. Hittelman (USA), R. Di Giovambattista (Italy)
This workshop was focused on current utilization of modern computer technologies for solid earth data analysis. About the half of presentations were devoted to discussion of different aspects of application of information systems in geosciences. Namely, analytical web geoinformation system was reported as a tool of remote presentation, modeling and analysis of environmental and in particular seismological data. The earth prediction registration site, which was created under the supervision of scientific council on the problems of seismology, RAS, was presented as another example of remote information system. Internet technologies for disseminating seismic information, which are used in the Italian National Institute of geophysics and volcanology, were discussed. The last three reports of this group were devoted to discussion of application of information systems based on GIS technologies (in local version) to analysis of natural hazard and to geological information management.
The second part of report was devoted to the seismological problems of computer modeling and analysis. These reports discussed the application of the C- optimal criterion to optimal design of experimental data for computerized geophysical tomography, the design of a seismic network for South- East Asia, mathematical models of active and passive seismic monitoring and its application to earthquake prediction, new method of seismogram phase analysis. The result of the SISMOS project, which is aimed to safeguard from natural deterioration of paper historical seismic data, was presented.
Program Group: Ilmo T. Kukkonen (Finland), I. Artemieva (Sweden), V. Cermak (Czech Republic), S. Goes (Switzerland), W. Mooney (USA), H.N. Pollack (USA)
Convenors: Ilmo T. Kukkonen (Finland), I. Artemieva (Sweden), S. Goes (Switzerland), W. Mooney (USA)
(Co-Sponsored by IGCP)
Convenors: Vladimir Cermak (Czech Republic), H.N. Pollack (USA)
The release of heat and thermally controlled phenomena in the interiors of the Earth are the major driving forces of most geophysical and geological processes. In this symposium altogether 17 oral and poster presentations were given. Some of the highlights included: global compilations and correlations between thermal and seismic data (Mooney): implications for upper mantle temperatures from lab measurements of seismic attenuation (Jackson); applying mantle Xenolith data on characterizing the lithosphere-asthemosphere system in a shield area (Kukkonen); geodynamics of plates (Mooney); lithospheric heat production, thermal and rheological modelling of sedimentary basins (He, Wang); and applications of geothermal methods and data in the study of past climate change and man-made alteration in vegetation cover (Cermak, Hamza). Vietnamese colleagues also gave an ad hoc presentation of geothermal studies for oil exploration in Vietnam (Tron). Lively discussion was held on the correlations between thermal lithosphere thickness, seismic attenuation and velocities presented by Mooney.
The session was supported economically by the International Heat Flow Commission of IASPEI (with funds from IUGG) and the IGCP Project 428 Boreholes and Climate.
Program Group: Claude Froidevaux (France), P. Bormann (Germany), G. Gibson (Australia), V. Hamza (Brazil), R. Willemann (ISC/UK)
Convenors: IASPEI Committee on Developing Countries (CDC), Gary Gibson (Australia)
Joined to other symposium sessions.
(Linked to workshop S6W
Convenors: Peter Bormann (Germany) V. Hamza (Brazil)
For this session 11 oral presentations, 3 poster introductions as well as poster viewing time had been scheduled. However, two speakers did not attend the meeting (Srivastava, India, and Ferrari, Italy). Thus, only 9 of the scheduled oral presentations, plus an unscheduled one by E. Husebye, were given. Chairmen of the first and second morning session, respectively, were Valiya Hamza and Peter Bormann. The latter opened the topic with introductory remarks on past IASPEI initiatives related to web-based education and training (Birmingham 1999) and on efforts of the convenors to bring even more developers of relevant software and web sites to the meeting in Hanoi.
There were 47 attendees from 24 countries. Five speakers presented available web sites for earthquake education, information, data acquisition, dissemination and training. According to Hamada, related websites in Japan are rather diverse in scope and potential user groups (see). SEISweb was proposed by Moreno et al as a new and data-base oriented tool for interactive processing in seismology across the web while Hamza demonstrated very appealing interactive exercises for students to study various geophysical phenomena (Hamza and Moreira; http://www.on.br). One talk (Schweitzer) and three posters (Schweitzer and Ritter; Batllo) were dedicated to historical problems (IASPEI collection of old bulletins, the GÌ<ttingen School of seismology and historical recordings in Spain). Wu presented a very engaged and revealing analysis of the status of seismological journals in developing countries by way of examples from China and Korea and proposed ways for improving their reputation, dissemination and broader use by the scientific community. Hashizume gave an overview about the geologic and seismotectonic situation of Thailand and his efforts for opening a Solid Earth Physics course in Thailand.
Highlights have been two presentations illustrating different approaches in Germany (http://www.mgm.monschau.de/seismic) and Norway (
www2.ifjf.uib.no/seis-school) to integrate seismology and earthquake monitoring in high-school education (by Bormann and Husebye, respectively). Another highlight was the demonstration (by Bormann) of interactive animations of seismic ray paths propagation and seismogram formation, which are currently developed by S. Wendt of the University of Leipzig, Germany (email@example.com). The latter are suitable for both graduate courses in seismology as well as public demonstrations and will be linked in future to the web site of the New IASPEI Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice (
www.seismo.com). E. Bergman demonstrated the structure, contents and hypertext links of the NMSOP web site and its use for education and training.
Most presentations were followed by discussions, chiefly related to various aspects of web-based education and training as well as to on-line exchange of information in seismology and Earth physics.
Convenor: Raymond J Willemann (UK)
All of the posters scheduled in the morning were presented apart from that on the CTBTO International Data Center by Igor Chernobay, who did not participate in the Assembly. In addition, Klause Klinge presented a poster on the GRSN data center and Genevieve Roult presented a poster on Geoscope data center. Several dozen delegates to the Assembly attended the posters over the course of the session. Many of them were users of data from the various centers, who successfully sought clarification of issues related to the data access or plans for near-term development at the data centers. Delegates discussed the importance of a variety of services available from different seismological data centers, and it seemed clear that continued advances in seismology depend partly on availability of such services.
All of the tasks scheduled in the afternoon presented apart from that on the EPSI Project by Florence Riviere, who did not participate in the Assembly. At the time when Dr Riviere's talk was scheduled, Dmitry Storchak reviewed the seismological features of the most recent annual volume of the ISC Bulletin. In opening remarks, Adam Dziewonski noted that over the course of their 100 year history seismic bulletins have been developed to serve different communities of users, but that data in bulletins have also been used for purposes unimagined at the time that they were recorded. He noted that there is potential for greatly improved accuracy of hypocenters in the near future, but that simply improving fit to arrival times must not be mistaken for genuine improvement of location accuracy.
Talks in the early afternoon centered on methods to improve earthquake locations computed routinely at data centers. Chen Qi-fu demonstrated that 3-dimensional seismic wave velocity modes could significantly improve locations. Raymond Willemann described how analyses of arrival time residual could be used to investigate the effectiveness of a new location method. Andrea Morelli described how routinely locations could be improved without introducing uncertainties that exist in any 3-dimensional velocity model. Paul Richards described work that is expected to culminate in methods for routinely computing relative earthquake locations spanning the entire globe. This material contributed to discussion later at IASPEI Commission on Seismological Observation and Interpretation that led to formation of a new working group on seismic event location.
Talks later in the afternoon explored other services from seismological parameter data centers that would benefit seismologists, other earth scientists, and earth engineers. Steve Gao described development of a system to routinely obtain SKS splitting and other waveform measurements. Dmitry Storchark outlined the full suite of data available from the ISC including amplitudes and magnitudes, which led to extended discussion, concluding that it is desirable for some data centers to update magnitude calculation procedures to reduce artifacts. Jens Havskov discussed the importance of standardized practices at local and regional data centers around the world, and the utility of training as well as reliable, freely available software for achieving standardization.
A discussion panel comprised of Adam Dziewonski, Jens Havskov, Paul Richards and Bob Engdahl reviewed the material presented during the session as well as the experience of the panel members in using seismic parameters from data centers. The panel and other delegates participating in the discussion agreed that data centers need to continue improving the accuracy and reliability of their analysis for traditional measurements, even as they seek to provide new services to users.
Convenor: Peter Bormann (Germany)
This session consisted of two parts: a) a two-days poster session (August 28-29) and a session with oral presentations and poster introductions on August 29 between 08.30 and 12:00 a.m. P. Bormann presided over the well attended poster session with 15 posters on display. Twelve of them gave a condensed overview of 12 (out of 13) manual chapters while 3 posters related to complementary topics that are or will become part of specialized manual sections or related information sheets. The session chairman responded also to questions related to posters of authors who were unable to attend this session (Asch, Hanka, Wieland, Willemann). E. Bergman presided over the oral session on Thursday, August 29, which was attended by more than 30 (up to 38) people. Eight 15-20 min talks summarized the philosophy, scope and main contents of the majority of manual chapters. These were followed by seven short (3-5 min) introductions to the remaining chapters and some complementary sections/information sheets (3 were given by P. Bormann and 1 by J. Havskov as proxies for absent authors). Most presentations were followed by discussions. B. Kennett strongly recommended making the new manual available not only via Internet and in printed form but also as a CD-ROM and PDF filing. At the end of the session, J. Havskov, chairman of the IASPEI Commission on Seismological Observation and Interpretation, commended the Commission's Manual Working and its chairman, P. Bormann, for this comprehensive final reporting session and the significant progress made. He expressed the hope that the New Manual will be available to the international community in 2002 in all proposed formats. Most chapters, part of them in their preliminary form, can already be consulted under (
30 August 2001
Present: Prof. B.L.N. Kennett (President) in the Chair and about 250 delegates and guests.
The President opened the meeting at 1400 and welcomed participants.
The President reported that at this Joint Assembly we had 971 participants (793 foreign and 178 Vietnamese) from 64 countries and 1672 submitted abstracts. Among the largest number of foreign participants were 48 from the USA, 43 from Japan and 32 from China
The President reported on the new IASPEI Commission structure and its linkage to the IUGG 2003 scientific program.
The Secretary-General, Dr. E.R. Engdahl, reviewed the 1999 and 2000 Financial Reports for the Association. Major sources of income during this period were IUGG Allocations, Grants, Sales of Publications and Miscellaneous (surcharge disbursement from 1999 IUGG General Assembly). Major expenditures were Administration, General Assemblies, and support for IASPEI sponsored Symposia and Scientific Meetings. He announced that an MOU with SEDI has set the long-term management of the Doornbos Memorial Fund by IASPEI in a clearer state.
The Secretary General reported that use of bulk e-mail (~2000 addresses) for short important announcements seems to be favorably received by the scientific community. He noted that further development of the IASPEI Home Page on the World Wide Web is underway and that increased use of this means of communication by developing countries has replaced the need for a Developing Countries Newsletter.
During the Assembly one IASPEI Bureau meeting and three business meetings of the IASPEI Executive Committee were held, the last of these with IASPEI commission chairs. In addition, the Secretary-General reported that most IASPEI commissions held scheduled meetings during this assembly.
The Secretary-General announced that the Executive Committee has selected Santiago, Chile, as the venue for the 33rd IASPEI General Assembly in 2005. The assembly will be held over six days in January of 2005 on the campus of the University of Chile, which has excellent facilities for such a meeting. The Scientific Program for this Assembly will be developed at the 2003 IUGG General Assembly at Sapporo.
Prof. T. Yagi, Chairman of the Resolutions Committee, then proposed the Resolutions given below. They were accepted without modification.
At the behest of Prof. Jackson, the following recommendation on the "The roles of seismology, geology, and geodesy in earthquake potential studies" was presented for discussion.
Earthquakes release stresses that result largely from mantle convection and plate tectonics. Earthquakes generally occur on faults caused by previous earthquakes. Thus we must understand faults and their relationship to plate tectonics in order to understand earthquake occurrences. Similarly, folds and anticlines respond to tectonic stresses and help to control earthquake occurrences. Faults and folds are best studied with a combination of seismic, geologic and geodetic data. I would like to recommend that
- IASPEI commit to more effective interaction with the geological community to investigate faults and folds. Interaction should include joint symposia and special workshops co-sponsored with the International Union of Geological Sciences. We should use the International Lithosphere Project to help accomplish this interaction, as the ILP is jointly sponsored by IASPEI and the IUGS.
- IASPEI should recognize paleoseismology, earthquake geology, and neotectonics as sub-disciplines of seismology, including these disciplines in General Assemblies, Symposia, Commission Structure and other IASPEI activities.
- IASPEI should interact more effectively with the International Association for Geodesy by jointly sponsoring workshops, symposia, and other activities related to plate tectonics, crustal deformation, earthquakes, and other deformation events related to earthquakes.
The President noted that most of these topics are currently being addressed under IASPEI's existing commission structure and through interdisciplinary activities with other associations and IUGG bodies.
The President announced the composition of the Nominating Committee to propose a slate of officers at the 2003 General Assembly. The core members are Profs. Claude Froidevaux (France, Co-Chairman), Brian Kennett (Australia, Co-Chairman), Chen, Yun-tai (China), Gerardo Suarez (CTBO/Mexico), and other members co-opted to secure geographical and subject balance. The President, First Vice-President, Second Vice-President, Secretary-General, and four additional Members of the Executive Committee should be nominated. Nominations should be sent directly to:
Prof. Claude Froidevaux Departement Terre-Atmosphere-Ocean Ecole Normale Superieure 24, rue Lhomond F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 FRANCE Tel: 33 1 44 32 22 13 Fax: 33 1 44 32 22 00 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Secretary General will announce the final composition of the Nominating Committee in a future bulk e-mail message,
There being no further business, the President once more thanked the Local Organizing Committee and expressed the hope that participants had enjoyed their stay in Vietnam.
The President closed the meeting at 1515.
Hanoi Vietnam, 30 August 2001
that international cooperation is crucial in raising the standards of global science and that much of the best work presented at this Assembly originates from multi-national projects carried on also in developing countries, that often involve young local students interacting with institutions from developed countries;
that research and monitoring institutions in developing countries often lack the technical resources and trained personnel to be leaders in advanced scientific research;
that important lessons learnt from recent earthquakes are based on the open access to data and on multi-disciplinary field and analysis work;
that the new availability of high-quality data is revolutionising our understanding of seismogenic processes, and that such data is often collected in developing countries by temporary deployments (e.g. GPS, BB seismographs) that would be impossible to carry out without the active co-operation of local scientists and institutions,
all scientists from developed countries conducting projects in developing countries to adhere to the following code of conduct:
- to recognise the rights and aspirations of local institutions to actively participate in all phases of the scientific projects undertaken;
- to foster the educational opportunities for young scientists arising from their interaction with scientists from developed countries;
- to carry out part of the research at the institutions of the hosting developing countries;
- to enhance the exchange of ideas and of scientific know-how in the true IASPEI spirit.
that free, open, international exchange of data has been the basis of advances in seismology and related sciences;
that the International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty provides a significant global network of seismic, infrasound and hydroacoustic sensors;
that Article IV Section A.10 of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty states that "The provision of this Treaty shall not be interpreted as restricting the international exchange for scientific purposes";
that the Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks (FDSN) is prepared to accept and disseminate waveform and parametric data to the scientific community,
that the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO be requested to set in place mechanisms for open scientific access to waveform and parametric data from the International Data Centre with minimal delay. In the case of recognized emergencies due to natural catastrophic events, data should be available in near real time.
that knowledge of the stress field is a key parameter for modeling geodynamic processes;
that it is important to maintain and extend a public database on recent tectonic stress;
through its Commission on Tectonophysics
a link to the former ILP World Stress Map project now continued by the Heidelberg Academy of Science, Germany.
the importance of remote sensing and other satellite observation technologies in earthquake disaster reduction, in particular for mega-cities,
its members to play an active role both in up-grading existing satellite observation technologies and in the broad sharing of such technologies for ground deformation and earthquake studies, in order to enhance international co-operation in this area, and
an enhanced co-operation with IAG in this field in the future.
the effort required to organise the General Assembly,
thanks and congratulates the members of the Local Organising Committee for a most memorable meeting in Hanoi.